Cereal Cyst Nematodes (Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi)


cereal cysts

cereal cysts in soil debris

Closeup of wheat root growth disrupted by cereal cyst nematode parasitism

root deformation

crushing mature cyst under magnification

crushed cyst contained many eggs

Heterodera avenae identified by PCR-RFLP

Oregon population of Heterodera avenae identified using PCR-RFLP procedures

CCN altered root growth in spring wheat

spring wheat roots deformed by Heterodera avenae

wheat plants stunted by cereal cyst nematodes

Heterodera avenae damage in winter wheat

winter wheat plants stunted by Heterodera avenae in a field with no undulation (e.g., flat surface)

Heterodera avenae damage on annual spring wheat

3rd-year annual spring wheat heavily damaged by Heterodera avenae combined with inadequate nutrition

patch caused by Heterodera avenae in winter wheat produced in a 2-year rotation with chickpea

patch caused by Heterodera avenae plus suspected nutritional deficiency on an eroded hilltop; winter wheat in a 2-year rotation with chickpea

Genetic Resistance to Cereal Cyst Nematode

The cereal cyst nematode ( Heterodera avenae ) can reduce yields of winter wheat and barley as much as 50% in infested soils and is estimated to reduce annual farm gate receipts from wheat sales by about $4.3 million in the Pacific Northwest states of Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Yields are reduced to the greatest extent on infested fields when cereal crops are produced during two or more successive years, or when cereals are planted following broadleaf crops invaded by grass weeds. This nematode can cause total crop failure for spring cereals planted during successive years. H. avenae also occurs at low population levels in the main wheat-producing region of the Columbia Plateau, and is also now known to be present in six other western states. Current pest management emphasis is on genetic resistance, in collaboration with wheat breeding and nematology programs in Australia, France (INRA) and Turkey (CIMMYT). Although the populations of H. avenae in eastern and western Oregon are not clearly defined, the resistance genes Cre1 in wheat and Ha2 in barley completely impede reproduction of these populations. Crosses of a Cre1 donor with six Pacific Northwest-adapted winter and spring wheat cultivars have been made and are being advanced to develop genetic resistance to this pest in the Pacific Northwest.

Recently, Heterodera filipjevi, another member of the "H. avenae Group" of cereal cyst nematodes, was also discovered in Oregon. This was the first report of the occurrence of H. filipjevi in North America.

Representative papers include the following.

  • Dababat, A.A., H. Muminjanov, and R.W. Smiley. 2015. Nematodes of Small Grain Cereals: Current Status and Research. FAO, Rome, Italy.
  • Marshall, J.M., and R.W. Smiley. 2015. Resistance and tolerance of spring barley to Heterodera avenae. Plant Disease 99: (in press). (abstract)
  • Smiley, R.W., and G.P. Yan. 2015. Discovery of Heterodera filipjevi in Washington and comparative virulence with H. avenae on wheat. Plant Disease 99:376-386. (abstract)
  • Yan, G.P., R.W. Smiley, P.A. Okubara, and A.M. Skantar. 2013. Species-specific PCR assays for differentiating Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae. Plant Disease 97:1611-1619. (abstract)
  • Haddadi, F., A. Mokabli, and R.W. Smiley. 2013. Characterisation of virulence reactions for Heterodera avenae populations from two localities in Algeria. Phytoparasitica 41:449-456. (abstract)
  • Smiley, R.W., J.M. Marshall, J.A. Gourlie, T.C. Paulitz, S.L. Kandel, M.O. Pumphrey, K. Garland-Campbell, G.P. Yan, M.D. Anderson, M.D. Flowers, and C.A. Jackson. 2013. Spring wheat tolerance and resistance to Heterodera avenae in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Disease 97:590-600. (abstract)
  • Smiley, R.W., J.A. Gourlie, K.E.L. Rhinhart, J.M. Marshall, M.D. Anderson, and G.P. Yan. 2012. Influence of nematicides and fungicides on spring wheat in fields infested with soilborne pathogens. Plant Disease 96:1537-1547. (abstract)
  • Smiley, R.W. 2012. A fluidizing column for extracting cysts of Heterodera avenae from soil. Plant Disease 96:820-826. (abstract)
  • Smiley, R.W., J.M. Marshall, and G.P. Yan. 2011. Effect of foliarly-applied spirotetramat on reproduction of Heterodera avenae on wheat roots. Plant Disease 95:983-989. (abstract)
  • Smiley, R.W., G.P. Yan, and J.N. Pinkerton. 2011. Resistance of wheat, barley and oat to Heterodera avenae in the Pacific Northwest USA. Nematology 13:539-552. (abstract)
  • Smiley, R.W., and G.P. Yan. 2010. Cereal cyst nematodes: Biology and management in Pacific Northwest wheat, barley and oat crops. PNW Extension Bulletin 620, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR. 9 p. (online at http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/18917/pnw620.pdf)
  • Yan, G.P., and R.W. Smiley. 2010. Distinguishing Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae using PCR-RFLP and cyst morphology. Phytopathology 100:216-224. (full paper)
  • Smiley, R.W. 2009. Occurrence, distribution and control of Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi in the western USA. p. 35-40 in Cereal Cyst Nematodes: Status, Research and Outlook. I.T. Riley, J.M. Nicol, and A.A. Dababat (eds). CIMMYT, Ankara, Turkey. (full paper)
  • Yan, G.P., and R.W. Smiley. 2009. Discovery of Heterodera filipjevi on wheat in the USA. p. 94-99 in Cereal Cyst Nematodes: Status, Research and Outlook. I.T. Riley, J.M. Nicol, and A.A. Dababat (eds). CIMMYT, Ankara, Turkey. (full paper)
  • Smiley, R.W., and J.M. Nicol. 2009. Nematodes that challenge global wheat production. p. 171-187 in Wheat Science and Trade. B.F. Carver (ed.). Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA. (personal draft version)
  • Smiley, R.W., G.P. Yan, and Z.A. Handoo. 2008. First record of the cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi on wheat in Oregon. Plant Disease 92:1136. (full report).
  • Yan, G.P., and R.W. Smiley. 2008. First detection of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi in North America. Phytopathology 98:S176.
  • Smiley, R.W., R.G. Whittaker, J.A. Gourlie, S.A. Easley, and R.E. Ingham. 2005. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with reduced wheat yield in Oregon: Heterodera avenae. Journal of Nematology 37:297-307. (abstract)
  • Smiley, R.W., R.E. Ingham, W. Uddin, and G.H. Cook. 1994. Crop rotations and sequences for producing winter wheat in soil infested with cereal cyst nematode and fungal pathogens. Plant Disease 78:1142-1149. (abstract)
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